World Radiology Day- November 8


World Radiology Day- November 8 

Cardiac imaging refers to non-invasive imaging of the heart using ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), or nuclear medicine (NM) imaging with PET or SPECT. These cardiac techniques are otherwise referred to as echocardiography, Cardiac MRI, Cardiac CT, Cardiac PET and Cardiac SPECT including myocardial perfusion imaging.

Echocardiography

Transthoracic echocardiography uses ultrasonic waves for continuous heart chamber and blood movement visualization. It is the most commonly used imaging tool for diagnosing heart problems, as it allows non-invasive visualization of the heart and the blood flow through the heart, using a technique known as Doppler.

Transesophageal echocardiography uses a specialized probe containing an ultrasound transducer at its tip is passed into the patient"s esophagus. It is used in diagnosis of various thoracic defects or damage, i.e. heart and lung imaging. It has some advantages and disadvantages over thoracic or intravasular ultrasound.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Magnetic resonance imaging is an imaging methodology based on aligning the spin axis of nuclei within molecules of the object being visualized using both powerful superconducting magnets and radio frequency signals and detectors. Cardiology uses are growing, especially since MRI differentiates soft tissues better than CT and allows for comprehensive exams including the quantitative assessment of size, morphology, function, and tissue characteristics in one single session. Current implementations for Cardiology uses are sometimes limited by lengthy protocols, claustrophobia and contraindications based on some complex metallic implants (pacemakers, defibrillators, insulin pumps), while artificial valves and coronary stents are generally not problematic. Image quality can be reduced by the continuous movement of heart structures. There is a promising future in cardiac MRI by more efficient scans, increasing availability of scanners and more widespread knowledge about its clinical application.

Computed tomography (CT)

Computed tomography angiography (CTA), an imaging methodology using a ring-shaped machine with an X-Ray source spinning around the circular path so as to bathe the inner circle with a uniform and known X-Ray density. Cardiology uses are growing with the incredible developments in CT technology. Currently, multidetector CT, specially the 64 detector-CT are allowing to make cardiac studies in just a few seconds (less than 10 seconds, depending on the equipment and protocol used). These images are reconstructed using algorithms and software.

Positron emission tomography (PET)

Positron emission tomography (PET), a nuclear medicine imaging methodology for positron emitting radioisotopes. PET enables visual image analysis of multiple different metabolic chemical processes and is thus one of the most flexible imaging technologies. Cardiology uses are growing very slowly due to technical and relative cost difficulties. Most uses are for research, not clinical purposes. Appropriate radioisotopes of elements within chemical compounds of the metabolic pathway being examined are used to make the location of the chemical compounds of interest visible in a PET image